I used AirAssembly to create a zk-STARK which can be used to prove that verification of a Schnorr signature was executed correctly. Specifically:
Given a message m, a public key P, and a signature (R, s) a prover can generate a proof that s cdot G = R + hash(P, R, m) cdot P.
In the current implementation, the verifier needs to know m, P, and R (but not s) to check the proof. It should be possible (with some effort) to update the scheme so that the verifier can verify the proof with only m and hash(P), and I believe this would result in a quantum-resistant signature scheme.
The STARK can be used to prove verification of one or more signatures. Proof sizes look roughly as follows:
- 1 signature: 110 KB
- 8 signatures: 140 KB
- 64 signatures: 180 KB
Extrapolating this further, it seems like a proof for 10K signatures should be somewhere around 300 KB in size. Moreover, with some optimizations, it may be possible to reduce proof sizes by 10% – 20%.
Proving time is currently rather slow: on my machine, it takes just under 2 seconds to prove a single signature verification, and a bit over 2 mins to prove 64 signature verifications. But, all is not lost:
- AirAssembly compiler hasn’t been optimized yet – so, the code it outputs is pretty inefficient. Optimizing it could speed things up by a factor of 2x – 3x.
- I’m running everything in a single thread. With multithreading, things will get significantly faster.
- Execution trace has 14 registers:
- The first 7 are used to compute s cdot G ,
- The other 7 are used to compute R + h cdot P, where h is an input equal to hash(P, R, m).
- I use a simple double-and-add algorithm for elliptic curve multiplication:
- At each step the base point is doubled, and when needed, added to the accumulated result (x, y coordinates for base points and accumulated results account for 4 out of 7 registers used in each multiplication).
- I also pre-compute slopes for addition/doubling one step before the actual addition/doubling to keep constraint degree low.
- The total number of transition constraints is 18, and the highest constraint degree is 6.
The elliptic curve I’m currently using is P-224 because it is one of the standard curves defined over a “STARK-friendly” field. But swapping it out for some other curve is trivial.
If anyone sees any issues, or has any feedback – let me know!